Specification limits which may also be referred to as product limits or substance limits cover most of the limits used. The acceptable moisture content of wheat for grinding into flour, the range of white blood count values for adults, and the maximum allowable % alcohol by volume for a product to be defined as low alcohol are all examples of this type of limit.
Specifications for what seem to be similar, or even the same, product may change dependent on the customer or market, for example supermarkets may define specifications for different types of the same product that may help differentiate price and market. Local regulations or cultural factors may require different specifications for a pharmaceutical product. A LIMS must be able to easily cope with these types of differences.
A specialized type of specification limit is the grading limit. A product may be checked against its standard manufacturing specification. If the product fails the standard specification a grading specification could be used to see if it passes an alternative specification and be acceptable to a specific customer who would accept this wider specification limit. This can help improve efficiency by stopping problem batches being scrapped or having to be reworked. Alternatively, a batch that passes its manufacturing specification can be graded against a higher specification to see if it can be sold at a premium.