Samples are tested and results passed back to the QA team who will take appropriate action depending on the results. This type of testing is very similar to that carried out by a contract testing Laboratory, which is probably the type of laboratory most widely supported by a LIMS.
As well as Ad-hoc, or discrete, testing being used in QC laboratories within manufacturing when additional testing is required, this type of testing is also widely used in general contract and QC laboratories. Contract laboratories, for instance, will typically be testing discrete samples for specific analytical tests. You still might link the testing back to a lot or batch number, and/or location in water/environmental testing, but there is no recipe management linking multiple samples from every stage in a production line. Because of the wide variety of industry types in which it is used ad-hoc testing is probably the most common form of testing managed by a LIMS.